VARIETIES (approximately 90 days)
Endive (curled, deeply cut, leaf types): Green-curled: Lorca, Ruffec (resists cold and wet conditions),
Salad King. For trial: Large Green-curled White-ribbed, White Curled, Frisan, Wallonne Frisan
(resistant to low temperatures), De Meaux, Crispy Green (heat resistant).
"Baby" endive: Tosca. For trial: Galia.
Belgian endive or French endive: These are other names for witloof or witloof chicory. See
seperate Witloof file.
Escarole (broad, crumpled leaf types): Broad Batavian Full Hearted, Full Heart Batavian, Grosse Bouclee (slow bolting).
For trial: Grosse Bouclee (slow bolting); Salanca (cold tolerant,
for late fall or early spring).
Endive and escarole may be grown on a wide range of soil types. Loose fertile loams, and muck
soils are best. Soils should provide good water holding capacity and good internal drainage, and a
pH of 6.5 and above. Since a number of these items are harvested in the fall, soils should be
chosen that allow harvest in moderately rainy conditions.
SEED AND SEED TREATMENT
Endive and escarole seed numbers 350,000 to 400,000 per pound. Use a fungicide treated seed
whenever possible. Have germination checked before planting if germination value is not known
or current. Pelletizing seed allows precision planting. Some companies offer primed seed which
can improve stand establishment under certain stress conditions.
SEEDING AND SPACING
Endive and escarole crops perform best under cool temperatures and are therefore grown in early
spring or late fall. Varieties are available for summer (July and August) harvest.
Plant as early in the spring as possible and stagger plantings once or twice per week, planting only
what can be harvested and sold during that interval. The quicker growing leaf lettuces may be
planted until the end of August.
Transplant only for the earliest crops. Grow transplants 6 weeks prior to the time they are needed
using modular trays, allowing l to l.5 square inches per plant.
Rows should be 15-18 inches apart. Plants should be 10 - 12 inches apart depending on cultivar and
crop being grown.
Nitrogen: 100-150 (N) lb/acre - should be split in 2 applications.
Phosphorus: 100-150 (P2O5)lb/acre - apply all at time of seeding or transplanting, preferably
banded 2 inches to the side and 2 inches below the seed or plant roots.
Potassium: 50-150 (K2O) lb/acre - broadcast prior to planting.
Sulfur: 20-30 (S) lb/acre - broadcast prior to planting.
These recommendations are intended to provide adequate fertilizer. Nitrogen rates especially may
need to be adjusted depending on crop, planting date, weather conditions and soil type.
These crops require a uniform supply of water for tender growth. Frequent irrigations are
preferred because these crops are shallow rooted. A total of 8-12 inches of water may be
necessary depending on crop, seasonal variation, planting date, and variety.
Soil type does not affect the amount of total water needed, but does dictate frequency of water
application. Lighter soils need more frequent water applications, but less water applied per
HARVESTING AND HANDLING
The University of California-Davis has a file on Minimal
Processing of Fresh Vegetables that discusses film wrapping and other topics.
Average yields for both endive and escarole are approximately 130 cwt/acre with good yields
about 180 cwt/acre.
Harvest is usually by hand and the greens are packed into cartons in the field. Keep the leafy items clean,
free of soil and mud. Ideally these crops have a spicy and mildly bitter taste. A strong bitter
taste, and toughness, develops if harvest is delayed or if crop is over-mature, and then the product
Specialty leaf lettuces, endive, and other greens for bag mixes have usually been harvested
by hand, but harvesters for this use are now available. Three are:
STORAGE (Quoted or modified from USDA Ag. Handbook 66 and other sources)
Green Crop Harvester, made in England. Sole US distributors are C. and
K. Anderson, Fresh Herb Co., 4114 Oxford Rd., Longmont, CO. The cost is $20,000 (1998 prices)
for a 4-foot wide model which hold the greens upright by chain-driven
sweeps and cuts the greens with a reciprocating knife (like a hedge trimmer).
A picture of the machine can be seen in Johnny's Select Seeds 1998 catalogue,
- Quick Cut harvester, an Italian, battery-powered, walk-behind machine with
a 39", 48" or 54"-wide head and a band-saw cutter. Cost is $11,000. Sold by
Ferrari Tractor CIE, PO Box 1045, Gridley, CA 95948; and
by David Washburn and Meg Anderson of Red Cardinal Farm, 9694 75th St.
North, Stillwater, MN 55082.
- Enha Pro, a human-powered machine designed by Norbert Hufnagl, Field of
Dreams, 117 Fredon Springdale Rd., Newton, NJ 07860.
Cost is $2,429 for a two-head unit and $2,966 for a three-head unit.
Hold endive and escarole at 32 F and 95 to 100 % relative humidity. Endive and escarole are
leafy salad greens not adapted to long storage. Even at 32 F, which is considered to be the best
storage temperature, they cannot be expected to keep satisfactorily for more than 2 or 3 weeks.
Vacuum cooling or hydrocooling can help maintain their fresh appearance. They should keep
somewhat longer if stored with cracked ice in or around the packages. The relative humidity in
rooms where endive or escarole is held should be kept above 95 % to prevent wilting.
All these crops are packaged in cartons containing 10-20 lb, depending on the item. Consult
buyers for preferred packaging, and container sizes.
DISEASE CONTROL FOR ENDIVE AND ESCAROLE
THE FUNGICIDES LISTED BELOW ARE FOR INFORMATION ONLY AND ARE REVISED ONLY
ANNUALLY. BECAUSE OF CONSTANTLY CHANGING LABELS, LAWS, AND
REGULATIONS, OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY CAN ASSUME NO LIABILITY FOR
THE CONSEQUENCES OF USE OF CHEMICALS SUGGESTED HERE. IN ALL CASES,
READ AND FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS AND PRECAUTIONARY STATEMENTS ON
THE SPECIFIC PESTICIDE PRODUCT LABEL.
USE PESTICIDES SAFELY!
Wear protective clothing and safety devices as recommended on the label. Bathe or shower after
Read the pesticide label--even if you've used the pesticide before. Follow closely the instructions
on the label (and any other directions you have).
Be cautious when you apply pesticides. Know your legal responsibility as a pesticide applicator.
You may be liable for injury or damage resulting from pesticide use.
Note that Oregon law requires reporting of pesticide use to the Oregon Dept. of Agriculture throught its PURS system, starting January 2002.
The Pacific Northwest Disease Control Handbook has no control entries for these crops. Fungicides registered, but not evaluated by University personnel in the
Pacific Northwest, include Alliette, copper, and Botran for both crops, and Maneb, Ridomil, and Telone for endive only. Consult labels for rates, restrictions, and diseases controlled.
Proper rotations, field selection, sanitation, spacings, fertilizer and irrigation practices can
reduce the risk of many diseases. Fields can be tested for presence of harmful nematodes. Using
seed from reputable sources reduces risk from "seed-borne" diseases.
Use spacings and irrigations practices that minimize diseases and allow for cultivation. Choose
fields free of perennial weeds and where related crops have not been grown for the previous three
years to minimize problems with diseases and weeds.
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